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In an era where data is the lifeblood of businesses, the importance of safeguarding personal information cannot be overstated. As countries worldwide tighten their data protection regulations, the new India Digital Personal Data Protection Act (DPDPA) of 2023 is a significant milestone in data privacy. For U.S. companies engaging with Indian citizens’ data, understanding the new definitions of significant data fiduciaries, data fiduciaries, and data principles, as well as the territorial scope of the DPDPA is paramount to ensuring compliance.


New Definitions: Significant Data Fiduciaries, Data Fiduciaries, and Data Principles


Significant Data Fiduciaries: Under the India DPDPA 2023, “significant data fiduciaries” have been introduced to categorise businesses that significantly impact individuals through data processing activities. These entities must adhere to stricter compliance obligations due to their potential to affect a more significant number of individuals. The DPDPA designates these obligations to ensure robust data protection practices and transparency.

Data Fiduciaries: A broader term, “data fiduciaries,” refers to any entity that processes personal data, irrespective of whether they are significant data fiduciaries. This designation covers all organisations dealing with personal data and obliges them to adhere to the principles and requirements outlined in the India DPDPA.

Data Principles: The DPDPA emphasises several data principles that guide the processing of personal data. These principles include the concepts of data minimisation, purpose limitation, storage limitation, and ensuring security and confidentiality, among others. By adhering to these principles, businesses can ensure that the data they collect and process is handled responsibly and ethically.


Territorial Scope of the DPDPA:


The territorial scope of the India DPDPA 2023 expands its applicability beyond India’s borders. U.S. companies, even if physically located outside India, may fall within the ambit of the DPDPA if they process the personal data of Indian citizens. This extraterritorial reach ensures that the data protection rights of Indian individuals are upheld, regardless of where the processing occurs.

For U.S. companies, compliance with the DPDPA involves several key steps:

  1. Data Audit: Conduct a comprehensive data audit to identify the personal data you collect, process, and store. Please understand the data processing purpose and ensure it meets the defined principles.
  2. Appoint Data Protection Officer (DPO): Designate a Data Protection Officer responsible for overseeing data protection within your organisation if you are classified as a significan data fiduciary. This individual should have a deep understanding of the DPDPA and its requirements.
  3. Obtain Consent: Ensure you obtain explicit and informed consent from individuals before processing their data. Make sure consent is specific to the intended purpose and is easily revocable.
  4. Security Measures: Implement robust security measures to protect personal data from unauthorised access, breaches, and leaks. Important data protection components include encryption, access controls, and regular security assessments.
  5. Transparency and Notices: Develop transparent and easily accessible privacy notices that inform individuals about the purpose of data processing, the types of data collected, and their rights.
  6. Cross-Border Data Transfers: If your U.S. company processes Indian citizens’ data outside India, establish mechanisms for compliant cross-border data transfers, such as using approved safeguards like Standard Contractual Clauses.
  7. Continuous Monitoring: Regularly monitor and update your data protection practices to stay aligned with the evolving landscape of data privacy regulations.




As data protection regulations evolve and gain prominence worldwide, U.S. companies must proactively adapt their practices to ensure compliance. The DPDPA’s introduction of significant data fiduciaries, data fiduciaries, and data principles, coupled with its extraterritorial reach, underscores the importance of a comprehensive and responsible approach to data handling. By prioritising transparency, consent, security, and compliance, U.S. companies can fulfil their legal obligations under the DPDPA 2023 and foster trust and goodwill among Indian consumers, paving the way for a more secure and ethical data-driven ecosystem.